Thursday, March 19, 2020
The English Culture essays What is it that defines a culture of a historical period? It can be the accumulation of the arts or advances in technology, science, music, teacher, the economy, war, or religion. It can also just be a simple change of view or beliefs in a group of people. These changes were clearly seen in England during the 17th century. The King's followers and Parliament began to dispute over the future government and religion of England. While these disputes were occurring, the common people, along with the upper class, argued over Catholicism, Puritanism, and the Anglican Church of England that, in turn, combine with the above, influenced society as well as marking it for this period. What and where did this theological movement come from? Many historians, such as G. E. Aylmer, believe that it was the Puritans, who didn't want to stem from the Anglican Church, who sparked the movement. They believed that they were in favor of higher education and moral theological training, but not of free speculation and expression if these led in unacceptable directions (Aylmer pg. 103.) During this time of social and political movement, it was the religious and strict puritans that developed and spread new philosophies. Most of the truly original ideas were produced by people in varying ways out of step with prevailing orthadoxies- Anglican, Puritan, royalist, and parliamentarian. New theories about the individual, the state, and society were in the fullest sense the product of their time, yet the produced as it were against the grain (Aylmer pg. 103.) Another movement that developed new ideas and speculation was the area of the sciences. The public events of 1640-1660 were tangential to the progress in mathematics, physics, mechanics, astronomy, optics, chemistry, anatomy, and physiology, which taken together have without exaggeration been called the Scientific Revolution, (Aylmer pg. 107.) ...
Monday, March 2, 2020
Alphabetical List of the Elements There are 118 elements on the periodic table. Heres a list of the chemical elements, arranged alphabetically according to IUPAC name: ActiniumAluminumAmericiumAntimonyArgonArsenicAstatineBariumBerkeliumBerylliumBismuthBohriumBoronBromineCadmiumCalciumCaliforniumCarbonCeriumCesiumChlorineChromiumCobaltCoperniciumCopperCuriumDarmstadtiumDubniumDysprosiumEinsteiniumErbiumEuropiumFermiumFleroviumFluorineFranciumGadoliniumGalliumGermaniumGoldHafniumHassiumHeliumHolmiumHydrogenIndiumIodineIridiumIronKryptonLanthanumLawrenciumLeadLithiumLivermoriumLutetiumMagnesiumManganeseMeitneriumMendeleviumMercuryMolybdenumMoscoviumNeodymiumNeonNeptuniumNickelNihoniumNiobiumNitrogenNobeliumOganessonOsmiumOxygenPalladiumPhosphorusPlatinumPlutoniumPoloniumPotassiumPraseodymiumPromethiumProtactiniumRadiumRadonRheniumRhodiumRoentgeniumRubidiumRutheniumRutherfordiumSamariumScandiumSeaborgiumSeleniumSiliconSilverSodiumStrontiumSulfurTantalumTechnetiumTelluriumTennessineTerbiumThalliumThoriumThuliumTinTitaniumTungstenUraniumVanadiumXenonYtterbiumYttriumZincZirconium Source Emsley, J. (2003). Natures Building Blocks: An AÃ¢â¬âZ Guide to the Elements. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-850340-8.
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Capture, Processing, and Presentation of Exogenous Antigen by Dendritic Cells - Essay Example As the paper stresses B and T cells differ in the manner they recognize antigens. B cells can recognize the antigen through its structure while T cells recognize the same protein only when it has been degraded and presented on the surface of the antigen presenting cell (APC). T cells do not attack free antigens that can be found in the cytosol. In the lymphoid tissues, dendritic cells are considered professional antigen presenting cells (APC) because they are strongest known stimulators of T cells in vivo and in vitro. Thus far, dendritic cells (DC) have only one known function, and that is to present antigens to T cells. Their name was derived dendron, Greek for tree, because of their morphological structure which resembles a tree with many branches or dendrites. From this paper it is clear that the DC arise from myeloid cells in the bone marrow and migrate to peripheral tissues like the skin and mucosa. In these tissues, the immature phenotype of dendritic cells prevail. Immature D C are not yet capable of stimulating T cells. However, the immature DC have receptors that allow them to recognize factors on microbial surfaces allowing them to take up or ingest exogenous antigens through macropinocytosis, endocytosis, and phagocytosis. During macropinocytosis, the dendritic cell membrane forms curved ruffles which fold in to form a pocket enclosing the antigens. The pocket forms a vesicle, called a macropinosome, with 1-5 um diameter, that is filled with extracellular fluid and other molecules including the antigens. The macropinosome then travels into the cytoplasm were it fuses with endosomes and lysosomes. This process occurs constitutively in immature DC and requires the presence of cholesterol. Macropinocytosis occurs in other cells but is only induced by the presence of growth factors.Ã
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Sykes Enterprises - Essay Example Convergys Corporations and TeleTech Holdings Inc. have been the major players in the industry that have captured a larger segment of the market leading to small companies like Sykes Enterprises focusing on cost-competitive strategies rather than quality competitiveness. The mission of Sykes is to provide its customers with competitive rates so that it can provide its customers with the lowest rates. SykesÃ¢â¬â¢ strategy is to compete with the industry leaders on cost. It has to thus ensure that its operations stay profitable for it to continue its operations. Its mission and objectives are aligned with the amount of competition in the market and allow Sykes to target the same companies its competitors are targeting, however, offering the lowest rates in town. There is no need to review the mission and objectives, but the strategy needs re-working. It is obvious that Sykes can take more than one action to improve its revenues and build a profitable business. The closure of its operations in India has resulted in the consolidation of its costs in the United States. The competitors of Sykes have resorted to opening up call centers in South East Asian nations such as the Philippines to counter the high turnover costs and possible wage rises in Indian cities due to growing economies. One of the strategic alternatives for Sykes could be to introduce a culture of hiring fresh graduates and providing them training and binding them with contracts to serve Sykes for a period of two years. This would result in a significant drop in turnover for a temporary period. Reduction in the hiring and firing costs will result in lower running costs that will allow Sykes to offer lower rates to its customers. It would be wise for Sykes to continue its contracts with various towns and cities and gather benefits in taxation and other utilities offering employment in return. The reduction in taxes would result in lower deductions in the revenues. The reduction would improve the profitability, though not necessarily the revenues.
Saturday, January 25, 2020
"On a recent afternoon, Scott McKenzie watched torrential rains and a murky tide swallow the street outside his dog-grooming salon. Within minutes, much of this stretch of chic South Beach was flooded ankle-deep in a fetid mix of rain and sea. Ã¢â¬Å"Welcome to the new Venice,Ã¢â¬ McKenzie joked as salt water surged from the sewers." ----- Michael J. Mishak, Associated Press June 7, 2014 at 4:24 PM EDT According to the World Bank Development Report 2013 there has been an increase in global surface temperature of 0.4 to 0.9 Celsius (C) in the past 100 years. This change in temperature largely caused, according to the IPCC, by the release of GHGs through human activities. There are several effects associated to the change in global temperature, mainly affecting ecosystems and populations worldwide. Among these effects or consequences are sea-level rise, drought, floods, loss of mangroves, and the intensification of storms and climate processes such as El Nino and La Nina. Recent studies have focused on sea-level rise and the global effects. Over the past 100 years, sea levels have increased by 10 to 20 centimeters (World Bank, 2003). Moreover, arctic sea-ice has continued to shrink up to 10 percent or more of its total mass and by 40 percent of its thickness. Glaciers and small ice caps are rapidly melting, causing several changes in the flows of rivers and ecosystems, as well as adding to the increase of sea levels. Sea level rise will most likely severely affect unprepared, developing countries and their populations. Concomitantly, developed industrial countries with higher levels of GDP are likely to cope more efficiently with the effects of sea level rise. This paper will focus on the prognosticated socio-economic costs of s... ... Policymakers Wembley, United Kingdom, 24-29 September 2001. Ã World Development Report 2013. Sustainable Development in a Dynamic World. Trnasforming institutions, growth, and quality of life. A copublication of the World Bank and Oxford University Press. New York, NY 2013. Ã Entering the 21st. Century Ã¢â¬â World Development Report 1999/2000. World Bank 2000. Oxford University Press. New York, NY 2000. Ã 1998-1999 World Resources: A Guide to the Global Environment. Environmental Change and Human Health. A Joint Publication by the World Resources Institute, the World Bank, the United Nations Environmental Programme, and the United Nations Development Programme. Oxford University Press, New York, NY 1998. IPCC Report 2003 Ã¢â¬â Overview of Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability to Climate Change. 1 page 365 Ã¢â¬â IPCC report 2003 1 page 365 Ã¢â¬â IPCC report 2003
Thursday, January 16, 2020
As explained in Blink by Gladwell and Payne, unconscious discrimination is a type of discrimination that is very hard to recognize. We have all heard about explicit discrimination, which can take two forms: the individual level and the institutional level. At the individual level, people openly like. This can be seen in the case of bias hiring when an employer tells a postulant; Ã¢â¬Å"I will not hire you because you are a female. Ã¢â¬ At the institutional level, one of the most striking examples of discrimination occurs with the Nuremberg Laws in Nazi Germany.These laws restricted the rights of German citizens that were Jews. People working in the Nazi institutions had to enforce these discriminatory laws even if they disagreed with them. By discriminating against Jews, they were only Ã¢â¬Å"doing their job and following ordersÃ¢â¬ . Implicit discrimination is more subtle and we will look more particularly at the unconscious form of this kind of discrimination. As seen in Blink , The Power of Thinking Without Thinking by Malcolm Gladwell, unconscious discrimination can be positive or negative.The election of Warren Harding is described by Gladwell as an error, as he proceeded to explain that President Harding was elected based more on his looks and personality than his competencies and abilities to govern the country. Most historians agreed that he was one f the worst presidents in history. Malcom Gladwell Ã¢â¬Å"thinks that there are facts about people's appearance- their size or shape or color or sex- that can trigger a very similar set of powerful associationsÃ¢â¬ and HardingÃ¢â¬â¢s election was obviously an example of this.Many people looked at him and saw how handsome and distinguished-looking he was and jumped to the conclusion that he had t be a man of courage, intelligence and integrity. They didnÃ¢â¬â¢t dig below the surface. Gladwell stated that Ã¢â¬Å"the Harding error is the dark side of rapid cognition. It is at the root of a good deal of prejudice and discriminationÃ¢â¬ . Unconscious or implicit association plays a big part in our behavior and belief as the Implicit Association Test (IAT) reveals.This test is based on the fact that our minds make quicker connections between pairs that are already related than we do with paired ideas that are unfamiliar. I decided to take the Race IAI test to see what the result would be. Firstly I was asked what my attitude towards blacks and whites was, and coming from a mixed background it was obvious for me to answer that they were equal. I took the test and immediately had an uneasy feeling about it. When the conclusions came I had, as did more than eighty percent of those who had taken the test, pro-white association.The test rated me as having a Ã¢â¬Å"moderate automatic preference for whites. Ã¢â¬ These results were astonishing to me and allowed me to understand better what unconscious discrimination was. In my brain the connection between black and good was harder to make than white and good. If a person coming from a mixed background like myself, had difficulties associating African Americans with good, and hence could be bias, I began to wonder how other races viewed African Americans.Even though very revealing, this example is just a test, and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have significant repercussions, but letÃ¢â¬â¢s take a real life justice example. Amadou Diallo, a 23-year old African man was shot and killed by four New York City Police Department officers. They fired a total of 41 shots at this unarmed man. In this case, one could ask oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self if racial profiling was used and to what extent DialloÃ¢â¬â¢s color played against him. The family filed a lawsuit against the City Of New York and the officers and won 3 million dollars.The event gendered social psychology researches notably one directed by Eberhard in 2004 which revealed that police officers are quicker to decide to shoot an unarmed black person rather than an unarmed white one. A ll these findings set ethical problems as problems of justice. How could we have justice if even mixed people, non-white or African Americans are biased? How could we write the rules for a society if trained officers face unconscious discrimination issues? How can the rules be written so that the ethical problem that is unconscious discrimination would become a thing of the past?From very early ages, dark colors have been associated with bad, and light or brightness with good. It is something that is deeply entrenched in our society and culture, so in order to change the mentalities and habits, children should, at a young age, be exposed to examples reinforcing or teaching them that good and bad are not a matter of color. Discrimination is instilled in our kidsÃ¢â¬â¢ everyday lives just as seen in most cartoons or kidsÃ¢â¬â¢ programs: the Ã¢â¬Å"good guyÃ¢â¬ is often white and the Ã¢â¬Å"bad guyÃ¢â¬ is darker. What is priming?The online glossary of the American Psychologic al Association defines it as Ã¢â¬Å"the advantage conferred by prior exposure to a word or situationÃ¢â¬ . I believe that at an elementary level, kids should have some classes and videos teaching them that all human beings are equal and cannot be judged by their color. Just like the propaganda advertising can influence us to buy and like a new products, this Ã¢â¬Å"race advertisingÃ¢â¬ would encourage kids to be less biased and to treat everyone with the same respect independently of their race or religion.This reasoning takes from the affirmative action programs that helped thousands of women access jobs and levels of responsibilities never experienced before. I truly believe that if at a young age, children are exposed to more diversity, this exposure would result in less unconscious discrimination later in their lives. Schools should have race and religious diversity and if we could succeed in mixing the population, children could learn to live together at a very young age. Now, letÃ¢â¬â¢s consider the hiring process.Is an interviewer named Ã¢â¬Å"JohnÃ¢â¬ more likely to give an edge to a job candidate also named Ã¢â¬Å"John? Ã¢â¬ Recent academic research suggests that the answer is yes but how does this type of unconscious discrimination affect a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to develop a merit-based model. Auren Hoffman and psychologist Brett Pelham conducted a study at the University of Buffalo and found the following groundbreaking results: Ã¢â¬Å"In hiring, positive gut feelings can lead to decisions based on superficial similarities to the decision maker, including those that may not be lawfully considered, such as age, race, and national origin.Equally importantly, they can lead to decisions based on a host of other irrelevant factors, such as hair color. Ã¢â¬ Hoffman concludes by stating that such decisions are bad business practices that can confer competitive disadvantage. T o remedy these injustices, I believe that pictures, names, and gender should be blanked from resumes, giving equal chances to everyone. Blind hiring could be a good solution to unconscious discrimination in the hiring process. Often the composition of an orchestra is a good example of gender discrimination.In most orchestras, brass instruments are played by men. In this specific example, during the music auditions, a screen could be put up so the playersÃ¢â¬â¢ gender would be impossible to identify. These methods implemented would firstly, force integration and expose the problems of unconscious discrimination and bring it to a state of awareness. Secondly, these methods would mix the population and undoubtedly change certain discriminatory practices, such as can be seen where it has become normal nowadays for women to have the right to vote, whereas before it was not possible.As we have discussed above, discrimination takes many different forms and even occurs without being a deliberate action on the part of the discriminatory party. Obviou sly the effects of discrimination are widespread and in some cases can be very devastating. As I mentioned before though, although challenging, it is not impossible to address the issues presented through discrimination. Obviously there has to be the acknowledgement that it is occurring, and after this acknowledgment steps can be taken, some of which I have suggested, to alleviate or eradicate the problem altogether. Some rules can be implemented to lighten or fix the problem.
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
A major portion of the practice of forestry silvicultural systems is timber harvesting methods designed to ensure successful and succeeding forest stands for the future. Without the application of these methods of reforestation, there would only be random tree stocking of both preferred and non-preferred species leading to major shortages of wood and trees demanded by the consumer. Nature, when left alone, uses its time-consuming natural process of reforestation and is appropriate in many situations. On the other hand, foresters may need to manage for a forests best use when forest owners and managers need reliable income and other necessities in an appropriate time frame. Many of the accepted forest regeneration concepts were first introduced to North America by German forestry professors during the late 19th Century. Germany had practiced these forest reproduction schemes for centuries and one of the earliest books on the subject was written by German forestry pioneer Heinrich Cotta during the late 17th century. These western European educated foresters were first to define the profession of forestry and became overseers of the training of foresters who managed large forest tracts owned by kings, aristocrats, and the ruling classes. These imported tree reproduction systems have continually evolved and developed into what are now used today. They are separated into classifications and used throughout the world where the practice of forestry and forest management is necessary to encourage sustainable forests. These classifications are conducted in logical sequence and the steps lead to healthy, well-stocked forests for future generations. The Classification of Tree Reproduction Methods Although there are innumerable combinations, for simplification we will list the six general reproduction methods listed by silviculturist D.M. Smith in his book, The Practice of Silviculture. Smiths book has been studied by foresters for decades and used as a proven, practical and widely accepted guide at the point where a timber harvest is necessary and where natural or artificial regeneration is the desired replacement. These methods have traditionally been called high-forest methods which produce stands originating from a remaining natural (using a high or aerial) seed source. The clear-cutting method is one exception where artificial planting, vegetative regeneration or seeding is necessary when the cut area limits complete reproductive tree seeding. Methods to Use When Even-Aged Management Is Preferred The Clearcutting Method - When cutting all trees and removing the entire stand that lays bare the ground, you have a clearcut. A clearing of all trees should be considered when residual trees are starting to lose economic value, when biologic over maturity leads to decadent stands, when the purity of a stand is compromised by cull and lower value trees, when the coppice method of regeneration is used (see below) or when disease and insect invasions threaten the loss of a stand. Clearcuts can be regenerated either by natural or by artificial means. To use a natural regeneration method means you must have an available seed source of a desired species in the area and a site/soil condition advantageous to seed germination. If and when these natural conditions are not available, artificial regeneration via nursery seedling plantings or prepared seed dispersal must be used. The Seed-tree Method - This method is simply what it suggests. Upon removing most of the mature timber, a small number of seed trees are left singly or in small groups to establish the next even-aged forest. In effect, you are not dependent on trees outside the cutting area but must be concerned about the trees you do leave as the seed source. The leave trees should be healthy and able to survive high winds, produce viable seeds prolifically and enough trees should be left to do the job. The Shelterwood Method - A shelterwood condition is left when a stand has had a series of cuttings over the period between establishment and harvest, often called the rotation period. These harvests and thinnings occur over a relatively short portion of the rotation by which the establishment of even-aged reproduction is encouraged under a partial shelter of seed trees. There are two objectives of a shelterwood cut - making ground space available by cutting trees of lowering value and using trees increasing in value as a seed source and for seedling protection as these trees continue to financially mature. You are maintaining the best trees to grow while cutting trees with a lower value for new understory seedling space. Obviously, this is not a good method where there will be only intolerant (light-loving tree species) tree seeds available to regenerate. The sequence of this particular method should be ordered by first making a preparatory cutting which prepares and stimulates seed trees for reproduction, then a seed tree cutting to further open vacant growing space for seeding; then a removal cutting which frees the established seedlings. Methods to Use When Uneven-Aged Management Is Preferred The Selection Method - The selection harvest method is the removal of mature timber, usually the oldest or largest trees, either as single scattered individuals or in small groups. Under this concept, the removal of these trees should never allow a stand to revert back to an even-age. Theoretically, this style of cutting can be repeated indefinitely with adequate wood harvest volumes. This selection method has the widest variety of interpretations of any cutting method. Many conflicting objectives (timber management, watershed and wildlife enhancement, recreation) must be considered and managed differently under this scheme. Foresters know they are getting it right when at least three well-defined age classes are maintained. Age classes are groups of similar aged trees ranging from sapling-sized trees to intermediate sized trees to trees approaching harvest. The Coppice-forest or Sprout Method -Ã The coppice method produces tree stands that originate mostly from vegetative regeneration. It can also be described as low forest regeneration in the form of sprouts or layered branches as opposed to the above examples of high forest seed regeneration. Many hardwood tree species and only a very few coniferous trees have the ability to sprout from roots and stumps. This method is limited to these woody plant types. Sprouting tree species respond immediately when cut and sprout with exceptional vigor and growth. They outpace seedling growth by far, especially when cutting is made during the dormant period but may suffer from frost damage if cut during the late growing season. A clear-cut is often the best cutting method.